Practical Regression

Correlation &Simple Linear Regression Analysis One of major analytic (predictive) models Most widely used & well known statistical modeling tool Linear regression Response variable is continuous The standard – ordinary least squares regression Simple (one response variable & one explanatory variable) Time series analysis Multiple (one response variable & multiple explanatory variables Logistic regression Response variable is categorical (usually binary) Nonlinear regression More complex (but less reliable) data fitting


Creating a new file in SPSS

Before we get into the details of creating a file in SPSS, there are two views in SPSS. The data view (used for inputting data) and Variable View (used to input variables and their properties).

The SPSS program opens by default on the data view, you will see a blank spreadsheet in Data View. In case the program is already open with another dataset, but you want to create a new one, click File > New > Data to open a blank spreadsheet.

Once it is opened, the default look of SPSS is like a Microsoft Excel sheet, or better call it a spreadsheet with rows and columns. You will notice that each of the columns is labeled “var.” The column names represent the variables that you enter in your dataset (For most data especially collected using questionnaires, each question forms a variable). For the rows, each row is labeled with a number (“1,” “2,” and so on). The rows will represent cases(respondents) that will be a part of the dataset. When you enter values for your data in the spreadsheet cells, each value will correspond to a specific variable (column) and a specific case (row).

Steps to follow in creating a new file

Step 1: Variable View

While the program opens default in the Data view, click on the variable to navigate to the variable view.

Key properties of a variable

In SPSS, the properties of a variable are Name, Type, Width, Decimals, Label, Values, Missing, Columns, Align, Measure, and Role. The most important properties to take note of are the Name of the variable, Type, Values, and Measure for now. Type the name for your first variable under the Name column. In naming variables in SPSS, a few key points are worthy to note

  • Names must be Unique
  • A variable name can not start with a figure and other special characters like @#$%^^&
  • Variables do not give room for space
  • Names are case sensitive among others

You can also enter other information about the variable, such as the type (the default is “numeric”), width, decimals, label, etc. Type the name for each variable that you plan to include in your dataset. In this example, I will type “Gender” since I plan to include a variable for the gender of the respondent and I have coded Gender into two: 1 = Male, 2 = Female, and I will put the decimal into 0 given that I really don’t expect a half person (The default is two decimals.). Then from the codes, I will enter the values for the gender variable and classify it under Nominal (If you don’t know what nominal stands for, read on Level of Measurements. For the others, I will allow the default settings. They do not influence my analysis significantly at the basic level. If you can notice from the image, the variable view is active and highlighted yellow.

Step 2:  Data View

Click the Data View tab. Any variable names that you entered in Variable View will now be included in the columns (one variable name per column). You can see that GENDER appears in the first column in this example.

Step 3: Data Entering

The data is entered for each participant or case. For example, lets assume we have 10 students, 4 boys and 6 girls. For each respondent, enter a value for their gender level in the cell that corresponds to the appropriate row and column. In this case, the first person’s data say a girl will be col1, row 1, and what appears after input will be Female. the second person is a boy and “1,” the third person is a boy “1,” the fourth person is a girl “2,” and so on.

In case your variable was not categorical (Nominal or Ordinal), you do not need to assign codes. In this case, the exact values are inputted. For example, if respondents provided their ages, you have to input the exact values. Let’s continue the input with our second variable Age(both data and variable views).

Repeat these steps for each variable that you will include in your dataset. Don’t forget to periodically save your progress as you enter data.

Inserting or Deleting Single Cases

Is not uncommon that you may need to add new cases or delete existing cases from your dataset. This could result from an observation that was forgotten or repeated and you want to delete it.  For inserting, in that situation, you would refer to the original data collection materials and enter the missing case into the dataset (as well as the associated values for each variable in the dataset). Alternatively, you may realize that you have accidentally entered the same case in your dataset more than once and need to remove the extra case.

Inserting a Case

To insert a new case into a dataset:

  1. In Data View, click a row number or individual cell below where you want your new row to be inserted.
  2. You can insert a case in several ways:
    1. Click Edit > Insert Cases;
    1. Right-click on a row and select Insert Cases from the menu; or
    1. Click the Insert Cases icon ().
  3. A new, blank row will appear above the row or cell you selected. Values for each existing variable in your dataset will be missing (indicated by either a “.” or a blank cell) for your newly created case since you have not yet entered this information.
  4. Type in the values for each variable in the new case.

Deleting a Case

To delete an existing case from a dataset:

  1. In the Data View tab, click the case number (row) that you wish to delete. This will highlight the row for the case you selected.
  2. Press Delete on your keyboard, or right-click on the case number and select “Clear”. This will remove the entire row from the dataset.

Once your data is ready, you can start the analysis process. I hope you found this article useful. Share your thoughts!


  • Opening a file
    Data setup in SPSS
    Reverse coding in SPSS
    Selecting cases in SPSS
    Splitting a file
    Composite Variable (compute function)

List of Academic Research Topics

When you enroll in university, faced with coursework and assignments are not the only challenges students have to deal with. At the university level regardless of location, long essays, thesis writing and dissertations are 95% compulsory for students to write before developing. Most students are so overwhelmed and worried about their homework and tests that they lack direction and don’t even know how to pick the best topic for thesis that will also work with their writing style. With Ferdsilinks always ready to help students, we have develop a list of topics across fields to help you.

The Influence of Public Procurement Procedures on the Execution of Contracts in Cameroon

The effects of bank lending on the profitability of commercial banks in Cameroon.

The effect of gender discrimination on the performance of employees. The case of Cameroon Development cooperation

 The extent to which the decentralization policy in the Ministry of Basic Education is being implemented by councils in Cameroon.

The role of accounting information system on the performance of small and medium size enterprises in Buea Municipality.

The effects of loan defaults on the profitability of MFIs in Buea.

The influence of advertising on consumer behaviour.

The effect of mobile money services on the growth and development of small and medium size enterprises

Investigate the comparative impact of e-banking and traditional banking on banks performance.

The effect of goal orientation on the acquisition of reading skills among primary school pupils in Cameroon.

The extent to which the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in organising and disseminating information in academic libraries impact on students’ academic activities

Teacher’s perception of students with dysgraphia and its effect on their academic performance.

Management and Planning of Restituted Land in Buea Sub-Division of the South West Region of Cameroon.

Effects of school culture on job satisfaction and teachers’ commitment.

Principals’ use of ICT in effective administration in public secondary schools.

Effect of induction on employees’ performance the case of telecommunication companies.

Work Life Balance Practices and Employee Performance

The impact of credit risk management on the financial performance of microfinance.

Social media practices and social relations among students of higher institutions in the University of Buea.

The influence of procurement practices on organizational performance: the Case of Brewery Retail Businesses in Buea.

The effect of customer satisfaction on the social performance of microfinance institutions in the Fako Division.

Investigation of inventory management is a significant tool for optimizing profitability in the Cameroon Development Corporation (CDC)

Business Analytics and Business Performance

The use of business analytics has grown in popularity as more companies around the world recognize the power and value of data for improving decision-making and automating operations. The importance of business analytics in driving growth has prompted companies across a wide range of industries to invest in the data related technologies and hire data analysts/data scientists, which allows them to make more accurate decisions, outperform competitors, and enter new markets, among other things. According to the International Data Corporation (IDC, 2021), the banking, industrial, and professional services sectors out invested all other businesses in data analytics, accounting for a third of overall spending in 2021.

Do you have any idea why? What if you could look back on the performance and outcomes of your company in the past and use that information to plan for the future? That is essentially what business analytics aims to achieve. Business analytics includes data analysis to build prediction models, as well as the application of optimization tactics and communicating the results to employees and customers. It takes a data-driven approach to the business world, generating business insights using statistics and data modeling.
There’s no way your company’s performance won’t improve in all areas if you use various types of analytics.
Types of Business Analytics
To better understand and grow their operations, businesses can employ four main types of business analytics.
Descriptive analytics—is one of the most basic types of analytics, providing data on what has happened or is happening currently. Sales numbers and social media involvement are examples of descriptive analytics. I often refer to it as “understanding the current state of the business” (state of the problem).
Diagnostic analytics, on the other hand, looks at data to figure out what’s causing a problem or what the state of a business problem was in the past (unveiling the source of the problem or what did not go well).
Prescriptive analytics—recommends a course of action or plan for achieving a goal based on a number of data elements such as available resources and previous performance. Measures are taken based on diagnostic and descriptive analytics to generate recommendations that, if followed, result in the desired outcome.
Predictive analytics uses techniques like machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms to predict future events like how a product will sell or who will buy it. The main benefit is that we can predict what will happen or decide what should happen based on the prescriptive measures.
One or all of these forms of analytics may be used, depending on your company’s aims.
In today’s business world, every firm is looking for a way to improve the efficiency of their decision-making process, and business analytics is the best (SOS) solution. You may begin using data analytics today, regardless of your industry or sector: banking, finance, healthcare, agriculture, education, government, large and small organizations. Business analytics is unique in that it can be applied to a wide range of scenarios and is crucial.

Companies employ business analytics to make data-driven decisions. Business analytics gives companies a clear image and insight into how they may increase their efficiency by streamlining and automating procedures. It’s no surprise that data-driven companies who use business analytics outperform their competitors. This is because business analytics insights enable them to comprehend why specific results are obtained, investigate more effective company operations, and even forecast the likelihood of specific outcomes.
In a nutshell, business analytics assist in
• Business analytics can help companies make better, more informed decisions and achieve a range of goals. By utilizing data, businesses can gain a deeper understanding of consumer behavior.
• Gain a better understanding of their competitors;

• Recognize market trends.
• Goals should be measured in terms of achievements.
• Simplify your procedures.
One of the most obvious advantages of business analytics is that it aids in the gathering of critical company information. This is performed by providing the necessary information to work with. This not only improves the efficiency of decision-making, but it also makes it simpler.
One of the things that business analytics may help any organization achieve straight away is efficiency. Since its inception, business analytics has played a critical role in assisting firms in improving their efficiency. Business analytics gathers a large amount of data in a timely manner and in a format that makes it easy to evaluate. This allows businesses to make better decisions faster.
Business analytics can help you reduce risk. It can help businesses reduce short- and long-term risk by assisting them in making the best decisions possible based on readily available data such as client preferences, trends, and other factors.

Without a doubt, business analytics has changed the nature of businesses and how they operate. Its importance cannot be overstated, and with an increasing number of businesses relying on it for decision-making, your company should consider incorporating it if it hasn’t already.

Ferdsilinks can help you today make the best from your data. Contact us today for consultancy services in the field of data

Why is Customer Survey Important for Your company?

One of the reasons for customer satisfaction surveys is to identify the pain point of the client and fix it. This if done enables the customer to come again and again. Today, beyond the brand, customer satisfaction is one of the key brands strategizes companies use to differentiate themselves in a crowded, fast-changing, and competitive business environment. Today, the brand with the best customer experience usually wins.

According to, “High levels of customer satisfaction … are strong predictors of customer and client retention, loyalty, and product repurchase.” This means we could help improve client retention through customer satisfaction.

In a previous article, we examined why Net Promoter Score (NPS) is essential for identified promoters from distractors as well passive clients to boost customer retention.

If you think, poor customer experience has no effect again, think again. According to research, poor customer satisfaction can actively harm your brand. An average customer will tell 16 other people about a poor customer experience from your brand, and it takes brands an average of 12 positive experiences to make up for one unresolved negative experience. This shows, understanding what drives your companies.

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Some key customer survey best practices

The efficacy of your customer satisfaction data relies on getting honest and accurate answers from your customers. Generally, expect some people to tell lies but often a small number if the questions are well formulated. Issues of beliefs and behaviour are common examples. To improve on honest responses, ensure the following:

  • Keep it short
  • Only ask questions that fulfill your end goal
  • Construct smart, open-ended questions
  • Ask one question at a time
  • If using a rating scale, make it consistent

The use of surveys to collect customer feedback has exploded in the past few years. You can gather great insight from a customer feedback survey and leverage that information to improve your product by using a few simple tricks of the trade. As findings have shown, 80% of companies that see year-over-year growth use customer surveys to collect customer experience data and make decisions informed by data.

Wondering how to conduct customer research, Ferdsilinks Research Team is here to assist you.

Ferdsilinks Customer Satisfaction Survey Results thus far

In a recent survey on Ferdsilinks Customer Satisfaction study, almost 90% of our customers have gotten to us through word of mouth recommendations. While we were taken by surprise, the study revealed two aspects: 1) our customers are satisfied with the services as such recommend us to their friends and 2) shocking feedback is that other marketing efforts used by Ferdsilinks are inefficient despite much spend on them. This gives us a new perspective for 2022 as we uncover more from the study.

Did you know?

Join us today for an amazing experience in your business with the power of data, where decisions are not taken based on a guess, single experience, and or subjective thinking. To conduct a customer satisfaction survey for your business, contact Ferdsilinks Research Consulting. We are determined to help you know your customers beyond what you do now. With customer survey data, your business decisions in 2022 would no more be based on speculations and guesses.

We help you take customer-centric decisions that would land your business at the WAOOW EXPERIENCE in 2022. All you need is to authorize us to conduct the customer satisfaction survey that would inform you on how to increase customer loyalty towards your brand in 2022.


Data Analysis Services: A Plus to your Organisation

Data analysis services allow businesses, students, and researchers to get their data collected, processed, and presented to them in the form of actionable insights from the patterns identified. A good analyst has the potential to help companies avoid investing in projects without the available market; expand into new markets and explore opportunities. With the rise of social media, data analysis has moved from a few companies to the world of small businesses, individuals, and governments. Getting the right data analysts to save millions from being wasted and analysts with experienced is the way out.

With 7 years of experience in data and data analysis, Ferdsilinks is a reliable outsourcing partner for companies that want to gain quick, frequent, and flexible analytical insights out of their data. Ferdsilinks Research delivers analytics results in different forms: spreadsheets, reports, and within a short period as need be.

Data analysis services, a must for companies today

A #company that uses #data #analysis #services benefits include faster data analysis and #reporting, revenue increase, reduction of operational costs, and reduction of churn rate.

Visit or contact us today: +237 652002630

#237, #Buea, #Cameroon, #dataanalysis, #dataScience,#AI,#ML


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